Melaka-Muar Sultanese

History of Nusantara

It all begins here, Nusantara. The history of both Melaka and Johor starts in this Land of Malay Culture.





(Nagarakertagama Poem ) : Prapanca ( a Buddhist monk and pries of Majapahit Palace ) told Muar as a colony part of Majapahit empire subdued by Hayam Wuruk and prime minister, Gajah Mada ( 1350-1389)




PALEMBANG (Paramicura) – Tamasik

  • Tun Sri Lanang (SejarahMelayu or Malay Annals) Shellabear version :In the SejarahMelayu or Malay Annals states that Temasik during the reign of Parameswara(Sultan Iskandar Shah) was defeated by Majapahit Kingdom.
  • Tomé Pires (the Suma Oriental) (1512–1515) :Tomé Pires wrote a landmark book on Asian trade, the Suma Oriental quetrata do Mar Roxoatéaos Chins (Summa of the East, from the Red Sea up to the Chinese) in Malacca and India between 1512–1515, completed before the death of Afonso de Albuquerque (December 1515), which highlighted the emergence of Parameswara replacing his father, Raja Sam Agi as the ruler of Palembang and later attacked by the king of Majapahit of Java, King BataraTamavill for declaring himself as ‘Mjeura'(those who dare) before fled to Temasik(Singapore)where he killed Siamese King of Ayutthaya’s representative, Temagi and he secretly ruled Temasik for 5 years.

The Begining of Melaka Sultanese

To study the history of Muar, we have to understand History of Melaka. Muar and Melaka, shares too many historical events. Thus, we will have to explain some of Melaka history.



PARAMESWARA (Kesultanan Tanah Melayu) – Biawak Busuk , Kota Buruk.

  • João de Barros (“Decades of Asia”), (1553) :João de Barros who wrote in 1553 in his 2nd Décadas da Ásia (“Decades of Asia”), a history of the Portuguese in India and Asia.stated that Parameswara (Paramicura) who were driven away from Temasik after he killed the representative of the King of Siam, Temagi; had escaped in exile and stopped in Muar and built a in rural areas of Muar called Pagoh.
  • Tun Sri Lanang (SejarahMelayu or Malay Annals) Shellabear version : He and his family including his followers had fled to Pagoh, Muar and opened 2 areas on the banks of the Muar River; the Biawak Busuk and another fort called Kota Buruk before moved to Melaka and opened up Melaka.
  • But fearing the revenge attack by the King of Ayutthaya, he fled to Pagoh, Muar with his 1,000 followers and lived there for 6 years when the Seletar peoples were still occupying Malacca before he moved to Malacca and opened it later.
  • It fort has since vanished but it is believed to be located at the present location of Bentayan Express Bus’ Station (formerly Pagoh Bus Stand) in Jalan Maharani, Muar.

The Fall of Melaka Sultanese

Just like the beginning of Melaka Sultanese, the events are related to Muar. Last Melaka, Sultan Mahmud‘s death(mangkat) happened in Muar.

1477 Ulu Muar


Sultan Alauddin Riayat Shah I – Pagoh

  • In 1488, the incident of Malacca’s Sultan AlauddinRiayat Shah I (1477–1488) who has died and buried in Pagoh, Ulu Muar during a visit, called “Sultan Mangkat Di Muar”.

1511 Empayer Malacca


Sultan Mahmud – Kubu Bentayan, Pagoh

During the Portuguese’s Afonso de Albuquerque invasion and attack in 1511, Muar played a role in resisting the Portuguese occupation of Malacca; the Kubu Bentayan fort was built by the last Sultan of Malacca, Sultan Mahmud to repel seaborne invasions, before he was defeated and retreat further to Pagoh, this time witnessing the fall of the Malacca Sultanate empire. During the Portuguese occupation era, the Portuguese built a fortress named Fortaleza de Muar

1512 Muar River


Afonso de Albuquerque – Fortaleza de Muar

  • An old Portuguese map shows that Muar had a second Portuguese fort in the Peninsular Malay beside Malacca. From the map, it was named Fortaleza de Muar built in 1604 by Emanuel Godinho de Erédia in triangular shape to defend the colony against attacks from the Dutch and Aceh, at the mouth of Bentayan River near the Muar River.
  • It fort has since vanished but it is believed to be located at the present location of Bentayan Express Bus’ Station (formerly Pagoh Bus Stand) in Jalan Maharani, Muar.
  • Abraham Ortelius (1584) (Old Maps) :Old maps such as Map Ortelius A.D. 1584 shows Muar as a city located to the south of Malacca.
  • Jan Huyghen van Linschoten (1595) (Old Maps) :Map Linschoten A.D. 1595 shows Muar as a city close to the state of Malacca.